Minor’s Naturalization

While we normally think of naturalization as a two step process whereby the alien first declares his intent to become a citizen and then petitions for naturalization, there were exceptions to that procedure.

For example, from 1824 to 1906, aliens who came to the U.S. while under age 18 could effectively declare their intent to become a citizen at the same time they filed their petition for naturalization once they had reached age 21 or more and had lived in the U.S. for five years (three of which as a minor). Let the law speak for itself:

image002.jpgSo, to summarize: the alien still had to meet the five year requirement for residency, and three years of that had to be while he was a minor.

Many courts used specific forms for these cases that combined declaration of intent language and petition language in one document, and they made sure to include the word “minor.”  Some may say the applicant “arrived as a minor,” while others will have the words “Minor Naturalization” emblazoned across the title or as a watermark.

For more on naturalization, see Naturalization Records and Women and Naturalization, Part I and Part II.

Burial Flags for U.S. Military Veterans

Today, when a U.S. military veteran dies, we take it for granted that the federal government will provide the next of kin with a U.S. flag to drape over the casket during funeral services. Obtaining this flag is one of the many routine tasks performed by funeral homes for grieving families.

But, did you know this? — The tradition of federally-funded flags for most veterans dates back only to the 1920s! You can read more about it in Records of Burial Flags for Veterans, NGS Magazine, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 2016): 39-42.

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Accidental Genealogy! Jan. 10-11, 2017

I suspect that my colleague, Ray Bottorf, has come up with some interesting stuff. You can watch … live … or later… on YouTube…

Tuesday, January 10, 2017, at 2 p.m. EST, William G. McGowan Theater at Archives I & View on YouTube 

Accidental Genealogy—Part 1 of 2  Learn about various genealogy sources from Ray Bottorf, Jr., as he describes valuable information accidentally found in our records, including records regarding military permissions to marry, deceased military personnel, and military personnel passenger lists. This is a two-part series. Presentation materials available at www.archives.gov/calendar/know-your-records.

Wednesday, January 11, 2017, at 2 p.m. EST, William G. McGowan Theater at Archives I & View on YouTube 

Accidental Genealogy—Part 2 of 2  Ray Bottorff, Jr., returns to describe valuable information accidentally found in our records, focusing on records from the Selective Service System. Presentation materials available at www.archives.gov/calendar/know-your-records.

Dangerous Assumptions!

We all do it. We make assumptions all the time. About everything.

In genealogy, we make assumptions about our ancestors, although their worlds were far different than ours.

We make assumptions about the records. Beginners often assume there’s “no record” of an ancestor simply because they cannot find it–for any one of a myriad of reasons. A researcher might assume that absence of one kind of record means that related records are also lost. Experienced genealogists are not immune from the assumption disease, either.

The 1820 population census schedules of New Jersey are long gone. They were lost long before there was a National Archives. But are all 1820 census records for New Jersey lost? No.

The 1820 manufacturing census schedules for New Jersey did survive, and they are published on National Archives Microfilm Publication M279, Records of the 1820 Census of Manufactures, Roll 17. There are schedules for over 300 men and firms, and it’s great stuff.

Here’s the list of New Jersey marshals, types of industries, and manufacturers found in the 1820 manufacturing schedules. The schedules are arranged by county (although not in alphabetical order), but they are also arranged in numerical order. Before microfilming, National Archives staff arranged the records geographically according to the arrangement in the published Digest of Manufactures compiled from these records in the 1820s, and then by any discernible system employed by the marshals. This arrangement permits the searcher to compare the individual schedules with the marshals’ abstracts and the Digest of Manufacturers tabulations.

Certainly, the records show that these (presumed) heads of families lived in a particular geographic location in 1820. Better than that, however, the manufacturing census schedules document the economic underpinnings of these households and their communities. Here is the two page record for a cotton textile factory owned by D. Holsman in Paterson town, Aquacknonk township, Essex County (sorry for the blurriness in my photos). Page 1:

1820NJManufacturing23a.jpg

Page 2:

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Some Assistant Marshals used pre-printed forms, as shown by this one dated at New York [City], December 1820, by J. Prall, part owner of the Rutgers Cotton Factory, also in Patterson [sic].

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Great  stuff. Both of the factories I’ve highlighted were “large” concerns, but there were also plenty of small shops included in the manufacturing schedules. If you had ancestors in New Jersey (or any state) in 1820, take a look at M279. You’ll be glad you did.

M279 Roll List:
1 – Maine and New Hampshire
2 – Massachusetts and Rhode Island
3 – Vermont
4 – Connecticut
5 -New York
6 – New York
7 – New York
8 – New York
9 – New York
10 – New York
11 – New York
12 – Pennsylvania
13 – Pennsylvania
14 – Pennsylvania
15 – Pennsylvania
16 – Maryland
17 – New Jersey, Delaware, and District of Columbia
18 – Virginia
19 – North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
20 – Kentucky and Indiana
21 – Ohio
22 – Ohio
23 – Ohio
24 – Ohio
25 – Ohio
26 – Eastern District of Tennessee
27 – Western District of Tennessee, Illinois, and pages from the published Digest of Manufactures for Alabama, Louisiana, Missouri, Michigan, and Arkansas

I have not found M279 online. Viewing copies are available at the National Archives Building, Washington, DC, and at National Archives Regional Archives in Atlanta, Boston, Kansas City (Missouri), Philadelphia, and Riverside (California). It can also be found at libraries with large genealogical collections.

Here is an easily accessible copy of the descriptive pamphlet (DP) for M279, which also describes and identifies where manufacturing data embedded within the 1810 population census can be found.

MVGS 2016 Writing Contest

The Mount Vernon (Virginia) Genealogical Society recently held a writing contest as part of its 25th anniversary events. Fifteen members submitted stories about their ancestors. A committee of fellow members evaluated all the entries and the winner was Claire Kluskens with a story entitled “Rev. William McCullar Was the Star Witness in a Murder Trial in 1814.”

Second place went to Sharon MacInnes with “Brunswick Tavern” while third was a tie between Sharon Hodges “My Black Sheep and a Wonderful Memory” and Jim Drewry for “A Timely Blue-Grey Friendship.”

Thank you to MVGS for the award, and I hope others will enjoy the story as well. Congratulations also to the other award winners.

Andersonville Prison Records

Researchers who find mention of the Confederate prison, Andersonville, in their ancestor’s Compiled Military Service Record (CMSR) or pension file should be interested in taking the next logical step in their research.

Andersonville prison records that were microfilmed as National Archives Microfilm Publication 1303, Selected Records of the War Department Commissary General of Prisoners Relating to Federal Prisoners of War Confined at Andersonville, Georgia, 1864-65, and can be found digitized online at FamilySearch.org at https://familysearch.org/search/collection/2019835, as well as at Ancestry.com.

In addition, it’s worth checking the “Claims Made for Money Taken from Federal Prisoners of War Confined in Confederate Prisons, 1866–1867,” https://catalog.archives.gov/id/615449, to see if the ancestor filed a claim. There is only a small possibility of this, because the opportunity to make a claim was not well known. My article about these records – “The Rebs Took My Money!” – is online here: https://twelvekey.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/ngsmagazine2015-04.pdf.

William Marvel’s book, Andersonville: The Last Depot, is an excellent book on life at Andersonville, and solidly grounded in archival research.

2016 NARA Virtual Genealogy Fair, Oct. 26-27, Online

The schedule for the 2016 National Archives Virtual Genealogy Fair is now available, and by the time the fair starts, all the presenters’ handouts and PowerPoint presentations will be available online, too.

If you missed the 2013-2015 online fairs, not to worry! They’re still online – video, handouts, PowerPoints – just go to the 2016 Fair page and follow the links under past fair posters.

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Gen-Fed Tales of Discovery, 2016

Malissa Ruffner, Director of Gen-Fed, the unique week-long course on using federal records in the National Archives for genealogical research, recently posted a list of “Tales of Discovery” by members of the Gen-Fed Class of 2016. The discoveries they made were in original paper records that are not online and not on microfilm. Their findings broke through brick walls, shattered erroneous conclusions made by others, and enriched their understanding of their ancestors’ lives and times. Fabulous stuff.

There’s no substitute for going beyond the “easy” online pickings to the harder-to-find or harder-to-access offline material.

There’s not enough time in the day, or in one’s life, to research everything, so one strategy is to focus on those ancestors or family groups that are most dear to you, and learn as much as you can about them. And then publish–or your work will perish.

Women in the Civil War

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When we think of the Civil War, the image that likely immediately springs to mind is that of thousands of men in uniform clashing in epic battles, such as at Gettysburg.

Forgotten are the thousands of women who performed tedious, dirty, inglorious tasks–hospital matrons, hospital nurses, laundresses, cooks, and others. They were there, too, on both sides of the conflict.

Documenting their presence, identity, and contributions, is infuriatingly difficult, however, due to the paucity of records that were kept–or retained. A new article,
“Union Army Laundresses,” NGS Magazine, Vol. 42, No. 3 (July-Sept. 2016): 33-37, breaks new ground by outlining research strategies for documenting the service of hospital laundresses, fort and post laundresses, and camp laundresses.

Most of these women likely came from the poorer end of the economic spectrum. They included African-Americans as well as Caucasians. Their efforts deserved to be better remembered, and I hope this article will encourage research.