Review of USCIS Webinar: “‘Any alien’ serving in the military or naval forces of the United States? Asian immigrant soldiers and naturalization during the First World War”

On 25 April 2018, USCIS historian Zack Wilske gave an excellent presentation about the laws affecting naturalization of Asian alien soldiers and sailors during World War I. Without reproducing his webinar, which was not recorded, let me share a few highlights.

The Naturalization Act of 9 May 1918 provided expedited naturalization for “any alien serving in the military or naval service of the United States during the time this country is engaged in the present war.” The serviceman needed proof of enlisted status or honorable discharge and  supporting testimony of two witnesses.

This Act exempted service members from five requirements: (1) five years of U.S. residency; (2) filing a declaration of intention; (3) ability to speak English; (4) the need to demonstrate knowledge of American history and institutions; and (5) the need to file in a court with jurisdiction over his residence.

The question soon arose whether Chinese, Japanese, and Hindoo [sic] servicemen could be naturalized under this law. Did Congress mean “any alien”  or was the 1918 act was to be read in harmony with prior statutes and case law that held that held that most Asian natives were not “free white persons” eligible to naturalize. (In 1870, Congress extended the right to naturalize to “persons of African nativity, or African descent.” Filipinos were also permitted to naturalize.)

There was disagreement within the Bureau of Naturalization, and between different Federal judges. Judge Horace W. Vaughan of the U.S. District Court of Hawaii construed “any alien” literally to include Asian servicemen, and began naturalizing them, as did some other judges. Ultimately the Bureau decided that Asians were not eligible, and selected the naturalization of Hidemitsu Toyota, who was naturalized in Boston, Massachusetts, on 26 May 1921, as a test case to take all the way up to the U.S. Supreme Court, which decided on 25 May 1925, that Asians were not included in the “any alien” language of the Act of 9 May 1918.

The Supreme Court decision made the naturalization status of those Asians murky at best and, condensing a lot of history here, eventually the Act of Congress of 24 June 1935 cleaned things up by (1) allowing Asian veterans of World War I to naturalize; (2) allowing Asians naturalized during the war to have their naturalization certificates validated; (3) allowing new certificates to be issued to those who lost them. These provisions expired 1 January 1937.

At least 700 Asian soldiers or veterans naturalized during or after World War I. Many of them were interned by the U.S. government during World War II. Racial bars on naturalization did not end until 1952.

USCIS Webinar: ‘Any Alien’ serving in the military or naval forces of the United States? Asian immigrant soldiers and naturalization during the First World War – Wednesday, 25 April 2018, 1 p.m. (Eastern)

An historian from the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS) will present another useful webinar next Wednesday, 25 April 2018, at 1 p.m.

*This webinar will not be recorded, so be sure to join it live.*

During the First World War, Congress passed an act that said any alien serving in the U.S. armed forces could become a citizen through an expedited naturalization process. Alongside other foreign-born soldiers, Asian immigrants serving in the U.S. military moved to take advantage of this opportunity.

U.S. naturalization laws, however, had long categorized Asian immigrants as racially ineligible for naturalization and many courts refused to make them citizens under the military naturalization law. For nearly two decades after the war, Asian immigrant soldiers fought to have their right to U.S. citizenship legally recognized.

 This webinar uses archival records and actual case files to tell the story of Asian immigrant WWI soldiers who sought U.S. citizenship under military naturalization provisions.

How to Attend:

1.  Visit the USCIS History and Genealogy webpage.

2.  Click “Guide to I&N History: Wednesday, April 25.”

3.  Click “Attend Session” just before the webinar start time at 1 p.m. (Eastern).  I recommend “arriving” about 10 minutes before in case you need to download any software or have other computer issues to resolve.